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Zweiter "kleiner" Lockdown zum 2. November 2020 verfassungswidrig?!


Vielen kleinen und mittelständischen Unternehmen der Dienstleistungsgewerbe geht es angesichts der gestern von der Bundeskanzlerin und den Ministerpräsidenten beschlossenen – vorerst temporären – Betriebsschließungen voraussichtlich endgültig an den Kragen. Der Shutdown betrifft die Branchen u.a. der Gastronomie (insbesondere Restaurants, Bars und Kneipen), Schwimmbäder, Sportstätten, Fitnessstudios, Saunen und Thermen, Kinos, Theater, Freizeitparks, Kosmetikstudios, Massagepraxen, Tattostudios etc. sowie Hotels für private Übernachtungen. Der staatlich angeordnete Eingriff in die eingerichteten und ausgeübten Gewerbebetriebe stellt für die betroffenen Unternehmer massive Grundrechtseingriffe, insbesondere einen enteignungsgleichen Eingriff sowie einen erheblichen Eingriff in die Berufsfreiheit dar. Grundrechte sind per se Individualrechte und damit Abwehrrechte gegen staatliches Handeln. Nur in Diktaturen sind die Freiheitsrechte konzentriert entweder auf einen Despoten oder einem despotisch wirkenden Kollektiv, in Abgrenzung zum Staatsvolk, zugewiesen. Genau das wollte der Parlamentarische Rat in den Jahren 1948/49 – die „Väter und Mütter des Grundgesetzes“ - wehrhaft verhindern. Natürlich muss der Einzelne auch in einer freiheitlich-demokratischen Grundordnung Beschränkungen hinnehmen, jedoch müssen solche Grundrechtsbeschränkungen stets verfassungsrechtlich gerechtfertigt sein und den nachfolgend ausgeführten Mindeststandards entsprechen.

Die am 28.10.2020 – zudem unter Verstoß gegen den Parlamentsvorbehalt beschlossenen - Maßnahmen der Bundeskanzlerin zusammen mit den Ministerpräsidenten sind unverhältnismäßig und halten voraussichtlich für die überwiegende Zahl der betroffenen Gewerbe einer einzelfallbezogenen verfassungsgerichtlichen Überprüfung nicht stand. Jeder - zumal derart gravierende - Eingriff in die Freiheitsrechte der Art. 14 Abs. 1 und 3 GG (Eigentumsschutz) und Art. 12 Abs. 1 GG (Berufsfreiheit) muss verfassungsrechtlich gerechtfertigt sein, d. h. zur Erreichung des verfassungsrechtlich legitimen Zwecks (vorliegend der Gesundheit der Bevölkerung und der Verhinderung eines Gesundheitsnotstandes)

1. geeignet und

2. erforderlich sein sowie

3. der Zweck-Mittel-Relation (Zumutbarkeit) in Abwägung der kollidierenden Verfassungsgüter entsprechen und darf des Weiteren

4. nicht den Wesenskern eines Grundrechts verletzen.

Bei dem beschlossenen zweiten "kleinen" Lockdown ist bereits das Kriterium 1. (Eignung der Maßnahme zum Infektionsschutz der Bevölkerung) nicht gegeben. Es ist durch nichts wissenschaftlich belastbar nachgewiesen, dass die Betriebe der genannten Branchen erheblich nach Art und Umfang der Dienstleistung die gemessene Erhöhung des Infektionsgeschehens verursacht haben, sofern diese sich an die bislang geltenden Hygienevorschriften halten. Konsequent sind die Kriterien 2.-4. auch durch den neuen sog. „kleinen“ Lockdown ebenfalls nicht erfüllt. Die – zumindest faktisch dem Berufsverbot gleich kommenden – Betriebsschließungen sind denkbar jedenfalls nicht das mildeste Mittel zur Erreichung des Ziels der Eindämmung der Infektionszahlen und daher auch nicht erforderlich. Schon gar nicht sind die – vielfach ökonomisch existenzvernichtenden – Maßnahmen zumutbar, und sie entsprechen damit nicht der gebotenen Zweck-Mittel-Relation, zumal wenn und solange die Ansteckung allein schon durch Einhaltung der bisherigen geltenden Hygienevorschriften erreicht werden kann.

5. Zudem hat das Grundgesetz bei jeder - nicht formalgesetzlichen - Einschränkung des Eigentumsgrundrechts (nach richtiger Rechtsauffassung auch beim enteignungsgleichen Eingriff, vorliegend unter dem Aspekt der zwangsweisen Betriebsschließungen) zu ihrer Wirksamkeit dem Staat eine sog. Junktimklausel (Art. 14 Abs. 3 Satz 2 GG) auferlegt, die - soweit den Betroffenen vorliegend ein wirtschaftlicher Schaden entsteht - den Staat zu einer angemessenen Ausgleichspflicht zwingend verpflichtet. Angesichts der erheblichen Umsatzeinbußen bereits durch den ersten Lockdown und die nachfolgenden Beschränkungen im Zuge der Hygienevorschriften der Länder kann die vom sog. „Corona-Kabinett“ angekündigte Ausgleichszahlung zu 75 % des nachzuweisenden Netto-Einkommens-Verlustes der staatlichen Ausgleichspflicht schon der Höhe nach nicht gerecht werden.

Daher ist es an jedem betroffenen Gewerbetreibenden, in seinem Fall die Voraussetzungen eines einstweiligen Rechtsschutzes zu prüfen oder prüfen zu lassen (so wie dies in den letzten Wochen bereits vielfach erfolgreich bei den Beherbergungsverboten in mehreren Bundesländern der Fall war). *

Ihre Kanzlei D & S

Rechtsanwalt Wolfgang Schwemmer

(*Anm.: Die vorstehende Stellungnahme kann natürlich eine fallbezogene und dem Einzelfall gerecht werdende vertiefte Beratung nicht ersetzten und stellt daher keine Rechtsberatung dar.)

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Keine Mietrückzahlung nach dem Mietendeckelgesetz des Landes Berlin für den Zeitraum bis 23. Februrar 2020

Gepostet am 5. August 2020 um 4:45


Der Berliner Mietendeckel ist erst ab 23. Februar 2020 anwendbar. Das Landgericht Berlin hat in seinem aktuellen Urteil vom 31.07.2020 (Aktenz. 66 S 95/20) entschieden, dass eine Rückwirkung zugunsten der Mieter entfällt. Gemäß der vorgenannten Entscheidung soll das Mieten­deckelgesetz erst ab 23. Februar 2020 greifen. Demnach ist die Landesvorschrift zwar verfassungs­gemäß . Jedoch haben die damit für das Land Berlin eingeführten Mietobergrenzen nicht rückwirkend ab 18. Juni 2019, sondern erst seit Inkraft­treten am 23. Februar 2020 Gültigkeit.

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